Spanish Rules

Notes - Learn Spanish: 20000 Words in 20 minutes



Vowels


Spanish vowels: a, e, i, o, u

"a" Pronounced "aah" as in "far" or "father"
"e" Pronounced "eh" as in "men" or "Mexico"
"i" Pronounced "ee" as in "free" or "see"
"o" Pronounced "oh" as on "coke". It is very curt sound. Place your mouth as if to pronounce "OH" but don't move you jaw or lips and force a quick, short grunt. It's like taking the "w" off of "mow".
"u" Pronounced "ooh" as in "moo" or "too". When preceded by a "q" (unless th "u" is followed by an "a") the "u" is silent. More on this later (see quirk #7).

Quirks


Quirk 1: h is silent.
Quirk 2: "j" is pronounced with an "h" sound.
Quirk 3: "f" replaces "ph".
Quirk 4: c sounds like k unless it precedes an i or an e. (Taco vs. Gracis)
Quirk 5: Words that begin with "Sp", "Sc", and "St" and preceded with an e become "Esp", "Esc", "Est".
Quirk 6: No "d" sound, just "th" (as in "those").
Quirk 7: "g" when followed an e is pronounced like an "h" sound in English.
Quirk 8: "z" is pronounced like an "s".
Quirk 9: There is no "w" sound with exception of some foreign words, so it is usually called a double vv or double uu.
Quirk 10: "x" when in between two vowels is pronounced like an "h" sound in English. When it is followed by a consonant, it is pronounced like an "x".
Quirk 11: ñ sounds like en-yeh equivalent to "ny" ("Canyon").
Quirk 12: No "k" in Spanish except for several foreign words. "K" sound is achieved with "Q" followed by "ue" (Que: KEH) or "ui" (Qui: Kee). In both cases, "u" is silent but vowels are pronounced.
Quirk 13: "y" sound is achieved with a double "ll".

Grammar


English: adjective comes before noun.
Spanish: adjective comes after noun.

SPANISH ALFABETO


A B C CH D E F G H I J K L LL M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TION RULE


This Rule applies to those words in English with two or more syllables that end with the letters

....tion
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...ción

As an example, the English word Nation is the Spanish word Nación (pronounced nah-see-on).

Remember that we will write an accent on the last syllable of Spanish words ending with ...ión.


ATE RULE


This Rule applies to those words in English with two or more syllables that end with the letters

....ate
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with.

...ar

Keep in mind that we are looking for word endings. The English verb ATE (past-tense of EAT) does not apply, nor do other single-syllable words such as MATE.
As an example, the English verb Create, is the Spanish verb Crear


IZE RULES


This Rule applies to those words in English with two or more syllables that end with the letters

....ize
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...izar
As an example, the English verb Realize, is the Spanish verb Realizar.

The "Z" in Spanish is pronounced like an "S"


AL RULE


This Rule applies to those words in English with two or more syllables that end with the letters

....al
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...al
(simple enough?)

English words ending in ....sial or ....tial that sound like "S" are translated to Spanish by using the ending ....cial.
In Spanish, when "c" precedes an "i", it is pronounced like an "s" (see Quirk # 8).
As an example, the English word partial is the Spanish word parcial.
The English word Hortensial is the Spanish word Hortensial.
Otherwise, the spelling will be the same (observing the quirks).
English words ending in ...tial in which the "t" sounds like " t" (as in bestial), are spelled the same in Spanish (bestial)


IC RULES


This Rule applies to those words in English with two or more syllables that end with the letters

....ic
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...ico
As an example, the English word rustic is the Spanish word rústico.
A reminder: this ending is pronounced EE-KO
Rústico, then, is pronounced ROOS-TEE-KO
This Rule applies to many useful words in Academia (Chemistry, Geography, Physics, Medicine, etc.) as well as common-usage words.


ITY RULE


This Rule applies to those words in English with more than two syllables that end with the letters

....ity
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...idad
As an example, the English word fertility is the Spanish word fertilidad.

ISM RULE


This Rule applies to those words in English that end with the letters

....ity (or ysm)
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...ismo

As an example, the English word tourism is the Spanish word turismo.
In this example, you will have noticed the difference in Spelling.
You will recall that in Chapter One we established that Spanish is pronounced exactly as it is written!
The English word TOURISM is pronounced TOO-RISM, with the "U" being silent (that is, not participating in the pronunciation of the word).
The Spanish word, TURISMO, is pronounced TOO-REES-MO.
English is phonetic (which, as you learned in Chapter Six, is "fonético") meaning that words are spelled according to their sound. Spanish, on the other hand, is pronounced according to the spelling, and no "trick combinations" of letters are allowed!
In Spanish if you can pronounce the word, you can spell it and vice-versa.


THE SION RULE (MAJOR)



This Rule applies to those words in English that end with the letters

....sion
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...sión
What's this?
This ought to be very easy!
It is! We write them exactly as they are in English!
Well, not exactly: remember the Quirks! Also, no double letters (GG, MM, NN, PP, SS or TT) and F instead of PH.


THE OUS RULE (MAJOR)



This Rule applies to those words in English that end with the letters

....ous
To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...oso
As an example, the English word gaseous is the Spanish word gaseoso.
(Remember to pronounce all the Spanish vowels!)



THE ENT RULE (MAJOR)


This Rule applies to those words in English with two or more syllables that end in

....ent
(Except ...ment)

To translate them into Spanish, we will substitute the ending with

...ente
Thus, the English word accident is the Spanish word accidente.



Source: http://www.knowspanish.com/