Outline of Buddhism

Three Jewels (Tiratana • Triratna)

  1. Buddha — Gautama Buddha, the Blessed One, the Awakened One
  2. Dhamma (Dharma) — the cosmic principle of truth, lawfulness, and virtue discovered, fathomed, and taught by the Buddha; the Buddha's teaching as an expression of that principle; the teaching that leads to enlightenment and liberation
  3. Sagha — the spiritual community, which is twofold (1) the monastic Sagha, the order of monks and nuns; and (2) the noble Sagha, the spiritual community of noble disciples who have reached the stages of world-transcending realization
 Four Noble Truths (Cattāri ariyasaccāni • Catvāri āryasatyāni)
  1. The Noble Truth of Suffering (Dukkha ariya sacca)
  • birth (jāti)
  • old age (jarā)
  • illness (byādhi)
  • death (maraa)
  • sorrow (soka)
  • lamentation (parideva)
  • pain (dukkha)
  • grief (domanassa)
  • despair (upāyāsā)
    Dukkha due to change (vipariāma-dukkha)
  • Association with the unpleasant (appiyehi sampayogo)
Separation from the pleasant (piyehi vippayogo)
  • Not to get what one wants (yampicchana labhati tampi)
Dukkha of conditioned formations (sakhāra-dukkha)
  • Five aggregates of clinging (pañcupādānakkhandha)
o       material form (rūpa)o       feeling (vedanā)o       perception (saññā • samjñā)o       mental formations (sakhāra • samskāra)o       consciousness (viññāa • vijñāna)
  1. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering (Dukkha samudaya ariya sacca)
  • Craving (tahā • tṛṣṇā) — to be abandoned
  • Craving for sensual pleasures (kāma tahā)
  • Craving for existence (bhava tahā)
  • Craving for non-existence (vibhava tahā)
  1. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (Dukkha nirodha ariya sacca)
  • Nirvana (Nibbāna • Nirvāa) — to be realized
  • Nibbāna element with residue remaining (sa-upādisesa nibbānadhātu)
  • Nibbāna element with no residue remaining (anupādisesa nibbānadhātu)
  1. The Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering (Dukkha nirodha gāminī paipadā ariya sacca)
Noble Eightfold Path (Ariyo aṭṭhagiko maggo • Ārya 'ṣṭāga mārga) — to be developed
  1. Right view
  2. Right intention
  3. Right speech
  4. Right action
  5. Right livelihood
  6. Right effort
  7. Right mindfulness
  8. Right concentration
 Three Marks of Existence (Ti-lakkhana • Tri-laksana)
  • Impermanence (anicca • anitya): Buddhist notion that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is in a constant state of flux.
  • Suffering (dukkha • dukha): suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness, sorrow, affliction, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress, misery, and frustration.
  • Nonself (anattā • anātman)
 Five Aggregates (Pañca khandha • Pañca-skandha) [Skandha]
  • Form (rūpa)
    • Four Great Elements (mahābhūta)
      • Earth element (pahavī-dhātu)
      • Water (or liquid) element (āpo-dhātu)
      • Fire element (tejo-dhātu)
      • Air (or wind) element (vāyo-dhātu)
  • Feeling (vedanā)
    • Pleasant feeling (sukha)
    • Painful feeling (dukkha • dukha)
    • Neither-painful-nor-pleasant (neutral) feeling (adukkham-asukhā)
  • Perception (saññā • samjñā)
  • Mental formations (sakhāra • samskāra) — see below
  • Consciousness (viññāa • vijñāna)
 Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppāda • Pratītyasamutpāda)
  1. All life in cyclic existence is suffering.
  2. There is a cause of this suffering, namely, craving caused by ignorance.
  3. There is a release from suffering.
  4. The path to that release is the eightfold Buddhist path of right view, right concentration, right mindfulness, right speech, right effort, right action, right morality, right livelihood.
  Duhka of Conditioned Formations:Five Aggregates
    1. Material Form
    2. Feeling
    3. Perception
    4. Mental Formations
    5. Consciousness
Twelve Conditioning Links (Nidāna) of Duhka:
  1. Ignorance
  2. Mental Formations
  3. Consciousness
  4. Mind and Body
  5. Senses
  6. Contact
  7. Sensation
  8. Craving
  9. Attachment
  10. Becoming
  11. Birth
  12. Old Age and Death: Sorrow, Lamentation, Misery, Grief, Despair,
⇨Entire Mass of Dukha  Former life
  • Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)
    • Not knowing about suffering
    • Not knowing about the origin of suffering
    • Not knowing about the cessation of suffering
    • Not knowing about the way leading to the cessation of suffering
  • Volitional formations (saṅkhāra • saṃskāra)
    • Bodily formation
    • Verbal formation
    • Mental formation
Current life
  • Consciousness (viññāṇa • vijñāna)
    • Eye-consciousness
    • Ear-consciousness
    • Nose-consciousness
    • Tongue-consciousness
    • Body-consciousness
    • Mind-consciousness
  • Name and form (nāmarūpa)
    • Name (nāma)
      • Feeling (vedanā)
      • Perception (saññā • samjñā)
      • Volition (cetanā)
      • Contact (phassa)
      • Attention (manasikāra)
      • Form (rūpa)
  • Four Great Elements
    • Earth — solidity
    • Water — fluidity
    • Fire — heat
    • Wind — oscillation
  • Six sense bases (saḷāyatana • ṣaḍāyatana)
    • Eye-base
    • Ear-base
    • Nose-base
    • Tongue-base
    • Body-base
    • Mind-base
  • Contact (phassa • sparśa)
    • Eye-contact
    • Ear-contact
    • Nose-contact
    • Tongue-contact
    • Body-contact
    • Mind-contact
  • Feeling (vedanā)
    • Feeling born of eye-contact
    • Feeling born of ear-contact
    • Feeling born of nose-contact
    • Feeling born of tongue-contact
    • Feeling born of body-contact
    • Feeling born of mind-contact
  • Craving (taṇhā • tṛṣṇā)
    • Craving for forms
    • Craving for sounds
    • Craving for odors
    • Craving for flavors
    • Craving for tangibles
    • Craving for mind-objects
  • Clinging (upādāna)
    • Clinging to sensual pleasures (kāmupādāna)
    • Clinging to views (diṭṭhupādāna)
    • Clinging to rituals and observances (sīlabbatupādāna)
    • Clinging to a doctrine of self (attavādupādāna)
  • Becoming (bhava)
    • Sense-sphere becoming
    • Fine-material becoming
    • Immaterial becoming
  • Future life
    • Birth (jāti)
    • Old age and death (jarāmaraṇa)
Pāli Tipitaka: "three baskets" refers to the Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. 
  • The Vinaya Pitaka containsdisciplinary rules for the Buddhist monks and nuns, as well as explanations of why and how these rules were instituted, supporting material, and doctrinal clarification
  • The Sutta Pitaka containsdiscourses ascribed to Gautama Buddha
  • The Abhidhamma Pitaka containsmaterial often described as systematic expositions of the Gautama Buddha's teachings.
Lotus Sutra: This sutra is known for its extensive instruction on the concept and usage of skillful means, the seventh paramita or perfection of a Bodhisattva – mostly in the form of parables. It is also one of the first sutras to use the term Mahāyāna, or "Great Vehicle", Buddhism. Another concept introduced by the Lotus Sutra is the idea that theBuddha is an eternal entity, who achieved nirvana eons ago, but willingly chose to remain in the cycle of rebirth (samsara) to help teach beings the Dharma time and again. He reveals himself as the "father" of all beings and evinces the loving care of just such a father. Moreover, the sutra indicates thateven after the Parinirvana (apparent physical death) of a Buddha, that Buddha continues to be real and to be capable of communicating with the world. The idea that the physical death of a Buddha is the termination of that Buddha is graphically refuted by the movement and meaning of the scripture, in which another Buddha, who "parinirvana-ed" long before, appears and communicates with Shakyamuni himself. In the vision of the Lotus Sutra, Buddhas are ultimately immortal. A similar doctrine of the eternality of Buddhas is repeatedly expounded in the tathāgatagarbha sutras, which share certain family resemblances with the teachings of the Lotus Sutra.The Lotus Sutra alsoindicates that emptiness (śūnyatā) is not the ultimate vision to be attained by the aspirant Bodhisattva:the attainment of Buddha Wisdom is indicated to be a bliss-bestowing treasure that transcends seeing all as merely empty or merely labeled. In terms of literary style,the Lotus Sutra illustrates a sense of timelessness and the inconceivable, often using large numbers and measurements of time and space.Some of the other Buddhas mentioned in the Lotus Sutra are said to have lifetimes of dozens or hundreds of kalpas, while the number of Bodhisattvas mentioned in the "Earth Bodhisattva" chapter number in the billions, if not more. The Lotus Sutra also often alludes to a special teaching that supersedes everything else that the Buddha has taught, but the Sutra never actually states what that teaching is. This is said to be in keeping with the general Mahāyāna Buddhist view that the highest teaching cannot be expressed in words. The ultimate teaching of the sutra, however, is implied to the reader that "full Buddhahood" is only arrived at by exposure to the truths expressed implicitly in the Lotus Sutra via its many parables and references to a heretofore less clearly imagined cosmological order. Skillful means of most enlightened Buddhas is itself the highest teaching (the "Lotus Sutra" itself), in conjunction with the sutra's stated tenets that all other teachings are subservient to, propagated by and in the service of this highest truth and teaching aimed at creating "full Buddhas" out of pratyekabuddhas, lesser buddhas and bodhisattvas.The text also implies a parent-child relationship between the innumerable Buddhas and human beings and other types of beings, with an explicit indication that all religions and paths are in some way or another part of the skillful means of this highest teaching, which reaches its fullest expression in the Lotus Sutra. The various religious institutions and their doctrinal proponents notwithstanding, all paths are then, officially speaking, part of the skillful means and plan of Buddhism, thus the sutra's former disavowal of all competitive doctrinal disputes. Crucially, not only are there multiple Buddhas in this view, but an infinite stream of Buddhas extending through unquantifiable eons of time ("thousands of kotis of kalpas") in a ceaseless cycle of creations and conflagrations. In the vision set out in this sutra, moreover, not only are Buddhas innumerable, but the universe encompasses realms of gods, devas, dragons and other mythological beings, requiring numerous dimensions to contain them. Buddhas are portrayed as the patient teachers of all such beings. Mahayana (literally 'Great Vehicle'): one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. 
  • Founded in India. 
  • The name Mahayana is used in three main senses:
    • As a living tradition, Mahayana is the larger of the two major traditions of Buddhism existing today, the other being Theravada. This classification is largely undisputed by all Buddhist schools.
    • According to the Mahayana method of classification of Buddhist philosophies, Mahayana refers to a level of spiritual motivation[1] (also known as Bodhisattvayana). According to this classification, the alternative approach is called Hinayana, or Shravakayana. It is also recognized by Theravada Buddhism, but is not considered very relevant for practice.
    • According to the Vajrayana scheme of classification of practice paths, Mahayana refers to one of the three routes to enlightenment, the other two being Hinayana and Vajrayana. This classification is the teachings of Vajrayana Buddhism, and is not recognized by Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism.
    • Although the Mahayana movement traces its origin to Gautama Buddha, scholars believe that it originated in India in the 1st century CE, or the 1st century BCE. Scholars think that Mahayana only became a mainstream movement in India in the fifth century CE, since that is when Mahayanic inscriptions started to appear in epigraphic records in India.[8] Before the 11th century CE (while Mahayana was still present in India), the Mahayana Sutras were still in the process of being revised. Thus, several different versions may have survived of the same sutra. These different versions are invaluable to scholars attempting to reconstruct the history of Mahayana.
    • In the course of its history, Mahayana spread throughout East Asia. The main countries in which it is practiced today are China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. The main schools of Mahayana Buddhism today are Pure Land, Zen (Chan), Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon, Tibetan Buddhism and Tendai. The latter three schools have both Mahayana and Vajrayana practice traditions.
Theravada (literally, "the Teaching of the Elders" or "the Ancient Teaching"): 
  • Oldest surviving Buddhist school. 
  • It was founded in India. 
  • It is relatively conservative, and generally closest to early Buddhism, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand). 
  • Theravada is also practiced by minorities in parts of southwest China (by the Shan and Tai ethnic groups), Vietnam (by the Khmer Krom), Bangladesh (by the ethnic groups of Baruas, Chakma, and Magh), Malaysia and Indonesia, while recently gaining popularity in Singapore and the Western World. 
  • Today Theravada Buddhists number over 100 million worldwide, and in recent decades Theravada has begun to take root in the West and in the Buddhist revival in India.
1The BuddhaOnly the historical Gautama (Sakyamuni) Buddha and past buddhas are accepted.Besides Sakyamuni Buddha, other contemporary buddhas like Amitabha and Medicine Buddha are also very popular.
2BodhisattvasOnly Maitreya bodhisattva is accepted.Avalokitesvara, Mansjuri, Ksitigarbha and Samanthabadra are four very well known bodhisattvas besides Maitreya.
3Objective of trainingArahant or pacceka-buddha.Buddhahood (via bodhisattva path).
4Organisation of Buddhist scriptures The Pali Canon is divided into 3 baskets (Tipitaka): Vinaya Pitaka of 5 books, Sutta Pitaka of 5 collections (many suttas) and Abhidhamma Pitaka of 7 books. The Mahayana Buddhist Canon also consists of Tripitaka of disciplines, discourses (sutras) and dharma analysis. It is usually organised in 12 divisions of topics like Cause and Conditions and Verses. It contains virtually all the Theravada Tipikata and many sutras that the latter does not have.
5Concept of BodhicittaMain emphasis is self liberation. There is total reliance on one-self to eradicate all defilements.Besides self liberation, it is important for Mahayana followers to help other sentient beings.
6Trikaya conceptVery limited emphasis on the 3 bodies of a buddha. References are mainly on nirmana-kaya and dharma-kaya.Very well mentioned in Mahayana buddhism. Samboga-kaya or reward/enjoyment body completes the Trikaya concept.
7Transmission routeSouthern transmission: Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Laos and Cambodia and parts of Southeast Asia.Northern transmission: Tibet, China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and parts of Southeast Asia.
8Language of dharma teachingTipitaka is strictly in Pali. Dharma teaching in Pali supplemented by local language.Buddhist canon is translated into the local language (except for the 5 untranslatables), e.g. Tibetan, Chinese and Japanese. Original language of transmission is Sanskrit.
9Nirvana(Nibbana in Pali)No distinction is made between nirvana attained by a buddha and that of an arahat or pacceka buddha.Also known as 'liberation from Samsara,' there are subtle distinctions in the level of attainment for the three situations.
10Sakyamuni Buddha's disciplesBasically historical disciples, whether arahats or commoners.A lot of bodhisattvas are introduced by Sakyamuni Buddha. Most of these are not historical figures.
11Rituals and liturgyThere are some rituals but not heavily emphasized as in Mahayana schools.Owing to local cultural influences, there is much more emphais on the use of rituals; e.g. Rituals for the deceased, feeding of Petas, tantric formalities (in Vajrayana).
12Use of Mantras and MudrasSome equivalent in the use of Parittas.Heavily practised in the Vajrayana school of Mahayana Buddhism. Other schools also have included some mantras in their daily lithurgy.
13Dying and death aspectsVery little research and knowledge on the process of dying and death. Usually, the dying persons are advised to meditate on impermanence, suffering and emptiness.The Vajrayana school is particularly meticulous in these areas. There are many inner and external signs manifested by people before they die. There is heavy stress in doing transference of merit practices in the immediate few weeks following death to assist in the deceased's next rebirth.
14BardoThis in-between stage after death and before rebirth is ignored in Theravada school.All Mahayana schools teach this after death aspect.
15One meal a day practiceThis the norm among Theravada sanghas.This is a highly respected practice but it is left to the disposition of each individual in the various sanghas.
16VegetarianismThis aspect is not necessary. In places like Thailand where daily morning rounds are still practised, it is very difficult to insist on the type of food to be donatedVery well observed in all Mahayana schools (except the Tibetans due to the geographical circumstances). However, this aspect is not compulsory.
17Focus of worship in the templeSimple layout with the image of Sakyamuni Buddha the focus of worship.Can be quite elaborate; with a chamber/hall for Sakyamuni Buddha and two disciples, one hall for the 3 Buddhas (including Amitabha and Medicine Buddha) and one hall for the 3 key bodhisattvas; besides the protectors, etc.
18Schools/Sects of the traditionOne surviving major school following years of attrition reducing the number from as high as 18.8 major (Chinese) schools based on the partial doctrines (sutras, sastras or vinaya) of the teachings. The four schools inclined towards practices like Pure Land/Amitabha, Ch'an, Vajrayana and Vinaya (not for lay people) are more popular than the philosophy based schools like Tien Tai, Avamtasaka, Yogacara and Madhyamika.
19Non Buddhist influencesMainly pre-Buddhism Indian/Brahmin influences. Many terms like karma, sangha, etc were prevailing terms during Sakyamuni Buddha's life time. References were made from the Vedas and Upanishads.In the course of integration and adoption by the people in other civilizations, there were heavy mutual influences. In China, both Confucianism and Taoism exerted some influence on Buddhism which in turn had an impact on the indigenous beliefs. This scenario was repeated in Japan and Tibet.
20Buddha natureAbsent from the teachings of Theravada tradition.Heavily stressed, particularly by schools inclined practices.
Buddhist Schools Korean Buddhismis distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism. Early Korean monks believed that the traditions they received from foreign countries were internally inconsistent. To address this, they developed a new holistic approach to Buddhism. This approach is characteristic of virtually all major Korean thinkers, and has resulted in a distinct variation of Buddhism, which is called Tongbulgyo ("interpenetrated Buddhism") by Korean scholars. Korean Buddhist thinkers refined their predecessors' ideas into a distinct form.As it now stands, Korean Buddhism consists mostly of the Seon lineage. Seon has a strong relationship with other Mahayana traditions that bear the imprint of Chinese Ch'an teachings, as well as the closely related Japanese Zen. Other sects, such as the Taego, the modern revival of the Cheontae lineage, the "Jingak" order (a modern esoteric sect), and the newly formed Won, have also attracted sizable followings. China
  1. TheVinaya School(Lu-tsung): As the name suggests, this school concentrated upon themonastic discipline (Vinaya) of the Buddhist monks and adhered strictly to do's and don'ts prescribed for them in the Vinaya Pitaka. This school was said to have been founded by Tao-hsuan  in the 7th Century AD. 
  1. TheRealistic School(Chu-she): This school derived its inspiration from the Abhidhamma Kosha of Vasubhandu (316-396), a Peshawar based Indian monk who was originally a Sarvasthivadin and wasfaithful to the original teachings of the Buddha. In course of time it became a part of the latter day Idealist school.
  1. The Three Treatises School (San-lun): This school followed the teachings of the Madhyamika sutras of the famous south Indian Buddhist monk, Nagarjuna who is remembered by history for his Sunyavada or thetheory of Absolute emptiness.His approach to the notions of reality was akin to the Upanishadic idea of  non-self and the doctrines of the Advaita or non dualistic schools of Hinduism.
  1. The Idealist School(Fa-hsiang):This school was founded on the ideals of Yogachara school of Vasubhandu as expounded in his Vimsatika- Karika or the Book of Twenty Verses. The school became popular because of Hsuan-Tsang (596-664) who traveled to India in the 7th Century AD to collect original Buddhist texts and bring them back to China.Hsuan Tsang was an adventurous monk who combined in himself the traits of a monk as well as inveterate traveler. Undaunted by the task ahead of him and driven by his goal to see the land of the Buddha, Hsuan-Tsang travelled to India by a circuitous route via the Silk Road through the perilious terrain of the north western frontires, and reached the University of Nalanda in eastern India after a great hardship. He spent considerable time there in the study of the Yogachara philosophy under the guidance of a teacher called Silabhadra. From there he went to the court of the famous Indian king by name Harshavardhana, who was a powerful but generous ruler of his times and ruled parts of northern and eastern India. He developed a great liking for the Chinese monk and insisted him to stay in his court for several years. Hsuan-Tsang complied with the king's request and stayed in his court for a few years before resuming his journey.He returned to China after many hardships, and managed to carry with him a huge collection of about 650 Buddhist texts and some Buddha relics. He spent the rest of his life in the translation of the texts and in spreading the teachings of Vasubhandu. Despite of the fact that the translations he arranged were not superior in quality, Hsuan-Tsang earned a place for himself in the history of China by his unique contribution to the development of Chinese Buddhism. Through his familiarity with the teachings of Vasubhandu, he made the Idealist School one of the most popular schools of Buddhism in ancient China.
  1. The Mantra or Tantric School(Mi-tsung or Chen-yen): This is the Chinese version of Tantric Buddhism. It flourished in China for less than a hundred years, starting with the arrival of Subhakarasimha (637-735) from India during the reign of T'ang dynasty. Subhakarasimha translated the Mahavairochana Sutra which expounded the Tantric teachings. Two other monks who played a key role in the growth of Tantric Buddhism in China were Vajrabodhi (670-741) introduced the concept of Mandalas to the Chinese, while Amoghavajra said to have initiated three T'ang emperors into Tantricism.the Tantric school of Buddhism believed in magic, incantations, drawing of mandalas, casting of spells and elaborate and often secret rituals. The school was later replaced by Lamaism, which was a more popular version of Tantricism.
  1. The Avatamsaka or Flower Adornment School(Hua-yen): This school flourished in China for about 200 years, starting from the 7th Century AD and attracted the attention of the famous Empress Wu (690-705). It was based upon the teachings of the Buddha as contained in the Avatamsaka Sutra.The followers of this school believed that the sutra contained the most complex teachings of the Buddha.not comprehensible to ordinary followers.The Avatamsaka school expounded a cosmic view of the universe containing the two principal aspects of the reality, namely li and shih, an approach which is in some ways resembles the concept of Purusha (spiritual) and Prakriti (physical) of Hinduism, adopted later on by the Tantric schools. It also believed that in each and every aspect the cosmic reality reflected the same relationships and balance of forces, signifying the ultimate truth of one in all and all in one.
  1. The T'ien-t'ai or White Lotus School(Fa-hua): Like the Avatamsaka school, the White Lotus School also was based upon the highest teachings of the Buddha, but compared to the former,provided a more a elaborate view of the cosmic reality. It was founded by a Chinese monk by nameChih-i(538-597) who lived in Chekiang province of China, andformed his doctrines on the basis of the Saddharma-pundarika sutra, an  ancient Buddhist text, which he believed to be the vehicle of all other truths. According to this school,Truth operated from three levels or aspects. At one extreme was the void or emptiness, the unknown or the non self, about which nothing much could be speculated except talking in terms of negation and denial. At the other extreme was temporariness that was in reality nothingness but would manifest itself temporarily or momentarily because of the activity of the senses, as some kind of an illusion or as an image on the film screen. The third level is a middle state, 'middle' for our understanding, but not necessarily middle, 'different' for our understanding but not necessarily different,  because it  unites the two and presents them together as the one Highest Truth. These three levels of truth are also not separate or different from each other. They are the aspects of the same reality, that is universal as well as ubiquitous. The school advocated the practice of concentration and insight (chih and kuan) to understand the transience of things and attain the Buddha Mind in which the above mentioned three aspects of Truth reside in perfect harmony.
  1. The Pure Land School(Ching t'u): This school was founded byHui-yuan(334-416), who was originally a Taoist.It was based upon the teachings of the Mahayana school and the belief in the Bodhisattvas, the highest beings, who were next to the Buddha in the order and just a step away from salvation, but would postpone their own salvation for the sake of others. This school worshipped Amitabha and sought his grace for deliverance from this world under the notion that salvation could not be gained on ones own efforts (jiriki) but with the help of the other power (tariki), the grace of Amitabha
  1. The Dhyana School (Ch'an): This was the most popular of the Chinese schools of Buddhism, which became popular in Japan and later in the west as Zen Buddhism.Chan was a "way of seeing into the nature of ones own being."(D.T.Suzuki). Though it was introduced into China by an Indian monk by name Bodhidharma, around 520 AD, Chan was essentially a product of Chinese character, which unlike the Indian,evolved out of the practical and down to earth philosophy of life.Chan rejected book learning as the basis of enlightenment, set aside all notions and theories of suffering and salvation, and relied upon day to day events, simple thinking and ordinary living as the means to enlightenment. Enlightenment descended upon one as a sudden shift in awareness and in the paradigm, from an instantaneous chasm in the process of thought, from a kind of Eureka experience, characterized by a sudden opening of the mind and removal of a veil, after years of silent waiting and steady preparation.The Chan school discouraged the intellectual kind of pursuit of religion as it believed that any scholarly approach would tend to stiffen the mind and prevent it from experiencing the sudden flowering of Chan.
Although the Chan masters did not encourage preoccupation with scriptural studies, they encouraged the initiates to study the basic Chan scriptures like the  Lankavatarasutra,  the Vimalakritinirdesa,  the Vajracchedika Sutras and some additional Chan texts as a a part of their preparation for the subsequent stages of observing into the nature of things. By denigrating the scriptural knowledge, the Chan masters therefore were not promoting illiteracy, but were preparing the students to free themselves from opinionated intellectuality and scholarly affectations to emerge into a world of notionless observations. The word 'chan' is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word, 'dhyana' meaning concentrated meditation or contemplation. Dhyana was an essential aspect of Chan Buddhism aimed to develop inner stillness and accumulation of chi energy among the practitioners.But what Chan encouraged, more than the mechanical aspects of meditation, was the development of an unfettered and detached mind, that would not cling to anything and would not rest anywhere and would flow with the flow of life, gathering nothing and gaining nothing. Chan Buddhism did not place too much emphasis on meditation, unlike the Zen Buddhism of Japan, but on finding the Buddha mind in the most mundane tasks and conversations of day to day life. In short, Chan made living a deeply religious act aimed to break the encrusted layers of thought. Chan Buddhism influenced Chinese way of life profoundly. The Chan art became famous in ancient China for its spontaneity and simplicity of expression.But with the decline of Buddhism in China, Chan also gradually retreated into remote monasteries and gradually lost its appeal. Zen / Chánis a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. This word is in turn derived from the Sanskrit dhyāna, which means "meditation". 
  • Zen emphasizes experiential prajñā (wisdom), particularly as realized in the form of meditation, in the attainment of enlightenment. As such, it de-emphasizes theoretical knowledge in favor of direct, experiential realization through meditation and dharma practice.
The establishment of Zen is traditionally credited to be in China, the Shaolin Temple, by the South Indian Pallava prince-turned-monk Bodhidharma, who came to China to teach a "special transmission outside scriptures" which "did not stand upon words". The emergence of Zen as a distinct school of Buddhism was first documented in China in the 7th century AD. It is thought to have developed as an amalgam of various currents in Mahāyāna Buddhist thought—among them the Yogācāra and Mādhyamaka philosophies and the Prajñāpāramitā literature—and of local traditions in China, particularly Taoism and Huáyán Buddhism. From China Zen subsequently spread south to Vietnam, and east to Korea and Japan. The Avataṃsaka Sūtrais one of the most influential Mahayana Sutras of East Asian Buddhism. The title is rendered in English asFlower Garland Sutra, Flower Adornment Sutra, or Flowers Ornament Scripture. 
  • This text describes a cosmos of infinite realms upon realms, mutually containing each other. The vision expressed in this work was the foundation for the creation of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism, which was characterized by a philosophy of interpenetration. Huayan is known as Kegon in Japan.
  • The sutra is also well known for its detailed description of the course of the bodhisattva's practice through ten stages where the 'Sutra of the Ten Bhumis', is the nomenclature given to the thirty-first chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra.
Prajñāpāramitā: "Perfection of Wisdom", is one of the aspects of a bodhisattva's personality called the paramitas.
  • The Prajñāpāramitā Sutras are a genre of Mahayana Buddhist scriptures dealing with the subject of the Perfection of Wisdom. The term Prajñāpāramitā alone never refers to a specific text, but always to the class of literature.
    1. One should become a bodhisattva, one who is content with nothing less than all-knowledge attained through the perfection of wisdom for the sake of all beings.
    2. There is no such thing as a bodhisattva, or as all-knowledge, or as a 'being', or as the perfection of wisdom, or as an attainment. To accept both of these contradictory facts is to be perfect.'
  • The central idea of The Perfection of Wisdom is complete release from the world of existence. The Perfection of Wisdom goes beyond earlier Buddhist teaching that focused on the rise and fall of phenomena to state that there is no such rise and fall—because all phenomena have no inherent nature, but arise from projections of the mind. The earlier perception had been that reality is composed of a multiplicity of things. The Perfection of Wisdom states that there is no multiplicity: all is one. Even existence (samsara) and nirvana are essentially the same, and both have no inherent nature, but arise from the projections of my mind. The view of The Perfection of Wisdom is that words and analysis have a practical application in that they are necessary for us to function in this world but, ultimately, all that we experience is a dream painted on a surface with no inherent nature.
Hua-yen doctrine shows the entire cosmos as a single nexus of conditions in which everything simultaneously depends on, and is depended on by, everything else. Seen in this light, then, everything affects and is affected by, more or less immediately or remotely, everything else; just as this is true of every system of relationships, so is it true of the totality of existence. In seeking to understand individuals and groups, therefore, Hua-yen thought considers the manifold as an integral part of the unit and the unit as an integral part of the manifold; one individual is considered in terms of relationships to other individuals as well as to the whole nexus, while the whole nexus is considered in terms of its relation to each individual as well as to all individuals. The ethic of the Hua-yen teaching is based on this fundamental theme of universal interdependence; while the so-called bodhisattva, the person devoted to enlightenment, constantly nourishes aspiration and will going beyond the world, nevertheless the striving for completion and perfection, the development of ever greater awareness, knowledge, freedom, and capability, is continually reinvested, as it were, in the world, dedicated to the liberation and enlightenment of all beings. The awakening and unfolding of the complete human potential leads to realms beyond that of conventional experience, and indeed to ultimate transcendence of all conditional experience, yet the bodhisattva never maligns the ordinary and does not forsake it, instead translating appropriate aspects of higher knowledge into insights and actions conducive to the common weal. It is generally characteristic of Mahayana or universalistic Buddhism that the mundane welfare of beings is considered a legitimate, if not ultimate, aim of bodhisattva activity, and many aspects of the ethical and practical life of bodhisattvas may be seen in this light... Bodhisattvas therefore strive to benefit all equally, without losing sight of the diversity and complexity of the means necessary to accomplish this end. Fazang was the third of the five patriarchs of the Huayan school. He is said to have authored over a hundred volumes of essays and commentaries. He is famed for his empirical demonstrations in the court of Empress Wu Zetian. His essays "On a Golden Lion" and "On a Mote of Dust" are among the most celebrated ruminations from the Hua-yen school. Chinese Buddhist Huayan school. I Ching: The Book of Changes, or Classic of Changes; also called Zhouyi, is one of the oldest of the Chinese classic texts.
  • The book contains a divination system comparable to Western geomancy or the West African Ifá system. In Western cultures and modern East Asia, it is still widely used for this purpose.
  • During the Warring States period, the text was re-interpreted as a system of cosmology and philosophy that subsequently became intrinsic to Chinese culture. It centred on the ideas of the dynamic balance of opposites, the evolution of events as a process, and acceptance of the inevitability of change.
Dharmadhatu: the 'dimension', 'realm' or 'sphere' (dhatu) of Dharma and denotes the collective 'one-taste'. In Mahayana Buddhism, dharmadhātu means "realm of phenomena", "realm of Truth" and of the noumenon, where Tathata (Reality "as-it-is"), emptiness, dependent co-arising and the unconditioned, uncreated, perfect and eternal Buddha are one. Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtraor Vimalakīrti Sūtra: a Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtra meant to teach the meaning of nonduality. An important aspect of this scripture is that it contains a report of a teaching addressed to both arhats and bodhisattvas by the layman Vimalakīrti, who expounds the doctrine of Śūnyatā, or emptiness, to them. This culminates with the wordless teaching of silence. kōan: a fundamental part of the history and lore of Zen Buddhism.Consists of a story, dialogue, question, or statement; the meaning of which cannot be understood by rational thinking, yet it may be accessible by intuition.One widely known kōan is "Two hands clap and there is a sound; what is the sound of one hand?" (oral tradition attributed to Hakuin Ekaku, 1686-1769, considered a reviver of the kōan tradition in Japan).
  • Kōansreflect the enlightened or awakened state of such persons, and sometimes confound the habit of discursive thought or shock the mind into awareness. Zen teachers often recite and comment on kōans, and some Zen practitioners concentrate on kōans during meditation. Teachers may probe such students about their kōan practice using "checking questions" to validate an experience of insight (kensho) or awakening. Responses by students have included actions or gestures, "capping phrases" (jakugo), and verses inspired by the kōan.
  • As part of the training of teachers, monks, and students, kōan can refer to a story selected from sutras and historical records. They may consist of a perplexing element or a concise but critical word or phrase extracted from the story. It may also refer to poetry and commentary added to the story by later Zen teachers.
  • English-speaking non-Zen practitioners sometimes usekōan to refer to an unanswerable question or a meaningless statement. However,in Zen practice, a kōan is not meaningless, and teachers often do expect students to present an appropriate response when asked about a kōan. Even so, a kōan is not a riddle or a puzzle. Appropriate responses to a kōan vary, as different teachers may demand different responses to a given kōan, and answers may vary by circumstance. One of the most common recorded comments by a teacher on a disciple's answer is: "Even though that is true, if you do not know it yourself it does you no good."The master is looking not for an answer in a specific form, but for evidence that the disciple has grasped the state of mind expressed by the kōan itself.
  • Thus, though there may be "traditional answers" to many kōans, these are only preserved as exemplary answers given in the past by various masters during their own training. In practice, any answer could be correct, provided that it conveys proof of personal realization. Kōan training can only be done with a qualified teacher who has the "eye" to see a disciple's depth of attainment. In the Rinzai Zen school, which uses kōans extensively, the teacher certification process includes an appraisal of proficiency in using that school's extensive kōan curriculum. In Japanese Zen, Chinese Ch'an, Korean Son, and Vietnamese Thien, and Western Zen, kōans play similar roles, although significant cultural differences exist.
Dajian Huineng: a Chinese Chán (Zen) monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition. Huineng is the Sixth and Last Patriarch of Chán Buddhism.He is said to have advocated an immediate and direct approach to Buddhist practice and enlightenment, and in this regard, is considered the founder of the "Sudden Enlightenment" Southern Chán school of Buddhism. His foremost students were Nanyue Huairang, Qingyuan Xingsi, Nanyang Huizhong, Yongia Xuanjue and Heze Shenhui. Amitābha: a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school of Buddhism. Amitābha is the principal buddha in the Pure Land sect, a branch of Buddhism practiced mainly in East Asia. According to these scriptures,Amitābha possesses infinite merits resulting from good deeds over countless past lives as a bodhisattva named Dharmakāra. "Amitābha" is translatable as "Infinite Light," hence Amitābha is often called "The Buddha of Infinite Light." Vairocana: a Buddha who is often interpreted as the Bliss Body of the historical Gautama Buddha. In Sino-Japanese Buddhism, Vairocana is also seen as the embodiment of the Buddhist concept of shunyata orEmptiness. In the conception of the Five Wisdom Buddhas of Vajrayana Buddhism, Vairocana is at the center.   Chinul or Jinul: a Korean monk of the Goryeo period, who is considered to be the most influential figure in the formation of Korean Seon Buddhism.
  • He was born at a time when the sangha was in a state of crisis, both in terms of its external reputation as well as on internal issues of doctrine. 
  • Deeply disturbed at the degree of corruption that had crept into the sangha, Jinul sought to establish a new movement within Korean Seon which he called the "samadhi and prajna society". 
  • Thismovement's goal was to establish a new community of disciplined, pure-minded practitioners deep in the mountains. Jinul eventually accomplished this mission with the founding of the Songgwangsa monastery at Mt. Jogye.
  • Essence-Function is a key concept is Southeast Asian Buddhism and particularly that of Korean Buddhism. Essence-Function takes a particular form in the philosophy and writings of Chinul.
Wonhyo: one of the leading thinkers, writers and commentators of the Korean Buddhist tradition. 
  • Essence-Function a key concept in Southeast Asian Buddhism and particularly that of Korean Buddhism, was refined in the syncretic philosophy and worldview of Wonhyo. With his life spanning the end of the Three Kingdoms period and the beginning of the Unified Silla,Wonhyo played a vital role in the reception and assimilation of the broad range of doctrinal Buddhist streams that flowed into the Korean peninsula at the time.Wonhyo was most interested in, and affected by Tathāgatagarbha, Yogācāra and Hwaom thought. However, in his extensive scholarly works, composed as commentaries and essays, he embraced the whole spectrum of the Buddhist teachings which were received in Korea, including such schools as Pure Land, Nirvana , Sanlun and Tiantai (Lotus Sūtra school).
Karma (Kamma): volitional action, considered particularly as a moral force capable of producing, for the agent, results that correspond to the ethical quality of the action; thus good karma produces happiness, and bad karma produces suffering.
  • Result of karma (vipāka): “Intention, monks, is kamma I say. Having willed, one acts through body, speech and mind” - Buddha
  • Intention (cetanā)
    • Wholesome intention (kusala)
    • Unwholesome intention (akusala)
  • Three doors of action (kammadvara)
    • Body — Bodily acts (mudra)
    • Speech — Verbal acts (mantra)
    • Mind — Mental acts (mandoza)
  • Roots (mula)
    • Unwholesome
      • Greed (lobha)
      • Hatred (dosa)
      • Delusion (moha)
    • Wholesome
      • Nongreed (alobha) — renunciation, detachment, generosity
      • Nonhatred (adosa) — loving-kindness, sympathy, gentleness
      • Nondelusion (amoha) — wisdom
  • Courses of action (kammapatha)
    • Unwholesome
      • Bodily
        • Destroying life
        • Taking what is not given
        • Wrong conduct in regard to sense pleasures
      • Verbal
        • False speech
        • Slanderous speech
        • Harsh speech
        • Idle chatter
      • Mental
        • Covetousness
        • Ill will
        • Wrong view
    • Wholesome
      • Bodily
        • Abstaining from destroying life
        • Abstaining from taking what is not given
        • Abstaining from wrong conduct in regard to sense pleasures
      • Verbal
        • Abstaining from false speech
        • Abstaining from slanderous speech
        • Abstaining from harsh speech
        • Abstaining from idle chatter
      • Mental
        • Being free from covetousness
        • Being free from ill will
        • Holding right view
    • Function
      • Reproductive kamma (janaka kamma) — that which produces mental aggregates and material aggregates at the moment of conception
      • Supportive kamma (upatthambhaka kamma) — that which comes near the Reproductive Kamma and supports it
      • Obstructive kamma (upapidaka kamma) — that which tends to weaken, interrupt and retard the fruition of the Reproductive Kamma
      • Destructive kamma (upaghataka kamma) — that which not only obstructs but also destroys the whole force of the Reproductive Kamma
    • Order to take effect
      • Weighty kamma (garuka kamma) — that which produces its results in this life or in the next for certain
        • Five heinous crimes, causing rebirth in hell immediately after death (anantarika-karma)
          1. Intentionally killing one's father (patricide)
          2. Intentionally killing one's mother (matricide)
          3. Intentionally killing an arahant
          4. Maliciously causing blood to flow from the body of a Buddha
          5. Creating a schism in the sangha
      • Proximate kamma (asanna kamma) — that which one does or remembers immediately before the dying moment
      • Habitual kamma (acinna kamma) — that which one habitually performs and recollects and for which one has a great liking
      • Reserve kamma (katatta kamma) — refers to all actions that are done once and soon forgotten
    • Time of taking effect
      • Immediately effective kamma (ditthadhammavedaniya kamma)
      • Subsequently effective kamma (upapajjavedaniya kamma)
      • Indefinitely effective kamma (aparapariyavedaniya kamma)
      • Defunct kamma (ahosi kamma)
    • Place of taking effect
      • Immoral (akusala) kamma pertaining to the sense-sphere (kamavacara)
      • Moral (kusala) kamma pertaining to the sense-sphere (kamavacara)
      • Moral kamma pertaining to the form-sphere (rupavacara)
      • Moral kamma pertaining to the formless-sphere (arupavacara)
  • Niyama Dhammas
    • Utu Niyama — Physical Inorganic Order (seasonal changes and climate), the natural law pertaining to physical objects and changes in the natural environment, such as the weather; the way flowers bloom in the day and fold up at night; the way soil, water and nutrients help a tree to grow; and the way things disintegrate and decompose. This perspective emphasizes the changes brought about by heat or temperature
    • Bīja Niyama — Physical Organic Order (laws of heredity), the natural law pertaining to heredity, which is best described in the adage, “as the seed, so the fruit”
    • Citta Niyama — Order of Mind and Psychic Law (will of mind), the natural law pertaining to the workings of the mind, the process of cognition of sense objects and the mental reactions to them
    • Kamma Niyama — Order of Acts and Results (consequences of one's actions), the natural law pertaining to human behavior, the process of the generation of action and its results. In essence, this is summarized in the words, “good deeds bring good results, bad deeds bring bad results”
    • Dhamma Niyama — Order of the Norm (nature's tendency to produce a perfect type), the natural law governing the relationship and interdependence of all things: the way all things arise, exist and then cease. All conditions are subject to change, are in a state of affliction and are not self: this is the Norm
Buddhist cosmology Six realms
  • Heaven (sagga)
    • Tusita — one of the six deva-worlds of the kāmadhātu
    • Tāvatiṃsa — the fifth of the heavens of the kāmadhātu, and the highest of the heavens that maintains a physical connection with the rest of the world
    • Four Heavenly Kings
  • Demigod realm (asura)
  • Human realm (mānusatta)
  • Hungry Ghost realm (peta • preta)
  • Animal realm
  • Hell (niraya • naraka)
    • Avīci — the lowest level of the hell realm
Three planes of existence (tiloka • triloka)
  • World of desire (kāmaloka)
  • World of form (rūpaloka)
  • World of formlessness (arūpaloka)
Ten spiritual realms
  1. Buddhahood
  2. Bodhisattva — Bodhisattvahood
  3. Pratyekabuddha — Realization
  4. Sāvakabuddha — Learning
  5. Deva — Heaven
  6. Asura — Paranoid jealousy
  7. Human beings in Buddhism — Humanity
  8. Animals in Buddhism — Animality
  9. Preta — Hunger
  10. Naraka — Hell
Six sense bases (saḷāyatana • ṣaḍāyatana) (Āyatana)
  • Eye and Forms
  • Ear and Sounds
  • Nose and Odors
  • Tongue and Flavors
  • Body and Tactile objects
  • Mind and Phenomena
Six Great Elements (Dhātu)
  • Earth element (paṭhavī-dhātu)
  • Water (or liquid) element (āpo-dhātu)
  • Fire element (tejo-dhātu)
  • Air (or wind) element (vāyo-dhātu)
  • Space element (ākāsa-dhātu)
  • Consciousness element (viññāṇa-dhātu)
 Six sensory faculties (Indriya)
  • Eye/vision faculty (cakkh-undriya)
  • Ear/hearing faculty (sot-indriya)
  • Nose/smell faculty (ghān-indriya)
  • Tongue/taste faculty (jivh-indriya)
  • Body/sensibility faculty (kāy-indriya)
  • Mind faculty (man-indriya)
Three physical faculties
    • Femininity (itth-indriya)
    • Masculinity (puris-indriya)
    • Life or vitality (jīvit-indriya)
Five feeling faculties
    • Physical pleasure (sukh-indriya)
    • Physical pain (dukkh-indriya)
    • Mental joy (somanasa-indriya)
    • Mental grief (domanass-indriya)
    • Indifference (upekh-indriya)
Five spiritual faculties
    • Faith (saddh-indriya)
    • Energy (viriy-indriya)
    • Mindfulness (sat-indriya)
    • Concentration (samādhi-indriya)
    • Wisdom (paññ-indriya)
Three final-knowledge faculties
    • Thinking "I shall know the unknown" (anaññāta-ñassāmīt-indriya)
    • Gnosis (aññ-indriya)
    • One who knows (aññātā-vindriya)
Formations (Saṅkhāra • Saṃskāra)
  • Seven universal mental factors common to all; ethically variable mental factors common to all consciousnesses (sabbacittasādhāraṇa cetasikas)
    • Contact (phassa)
    • Feeling (vedanā)
    • Perception (saññā)
    • Volition (cetanā)
    • One-pointedness (ekaggatā)
    • life faculty (jīvitindriya)
    • Attention (manasikāra)
  • Six occasional or particular mental factors; ethically variable mental factors found only in certain consciousnesses (pakiṇṇaka cetasikas)
      • Application of thought (vitakka)
      • Examining (vicāra)
      • Decision (adhimokkha)
      • Energy (viriya)
      • Rapture (pīti)
      • Desire (to act) (chanda)
  • Fourteen unwholesome mental factors (akusala cetasikas)
    • Four universal unwholesome mental facrors (akusalasādhāraṇa):
      • Delusion (moha)
      • Lack of shame (ahirika)
      • Disregard for consequence (anottappa)
      • Restlessness (uddhacca)
    • Three mental factors of the greed-group (lobha):
      • Greed (lobha)
      • Wrong view (diṭṭhi)
      • Conceit (māna)
    • Four mental factors of the hatred-group (dosa)
      • Hatred (dosa)
      • Envy (issā)
      • Miserliness (macchariya)
      • Regret (kukkucca)
  • Other unwholesome mental factors
    • Sloth (thīna)
    • Torpor (middha)
    • Doubt (vicikicchā)
Twenty-five beautiful mental factors (sobhana cetasikas)
  • Nineteen universal beautiful mental factors (sobhanasādhāraṇa):
    • Faith (saddhā)
    • Mindfulness (sati)
    • Shame at doing evil (hiri)
    • Regard for consequence (ottappa)
    • Lack of greed (alobha)
    • Lack of hatred (adosa)
    • Balance, neutrality of mind (tatramajjhattatā)
    • Tranquillity of mental body (kāyapassaddhi)
    • Tranquillity of consciousness (cittapassaddhi)
    • Lightness of mental body (kāyalahutā)
    • Lightness of consciousness (cittalahutā)
    • Softness/malleability of mental body (kāyamudutā)
    • Softness/malleability of consciousness (cittamudutā)
    • Readiness/wieldiness of mental body (kāyakammaññatā)
    • Readiness/wieldiness of consciousness (cittakammaññatā)
    • Proficiency of mental body (kāyapāguññatā)
    • Proficiency of consciousness (cittapāguññatā)
    • Straightness/rectitude of mental body (kāyujukatā)
    • Straightness/rectitude of consciousness (cittujukatā)
  • Three Abstinences (virati):
    • Right speech (sammāvācā)
    • Right action (sammākammanta)
    • Right livelihood (sammā-ājīva)
  • Two Illimitables (appamañña):
    • Compassion (karuṇā)
    • Sympathetic joy (muditā)
  • Mind and Consciousness
    • Citta — Mind, mindset, or state of mind
    • Cetasika — Mental factors
      • Manas — Mind, general thinking faculty
    • Consciousness (vijñāna)
      • Mindstream (citta-saṃtāna) — the moment-to-moment continuity of consciousness
    • Bhavanga — the most fundamental aspect of mind in Theravada
    • Luminous mind (pabhassara citta)
    • Consciousness-only (vijñapti-mātratā)
    • Eight Consciousnesses (aṣṭavijñāna)
      • Eye-consciousness — seeing apprehended by the visual sense organs
      • Ear-consciousness — hearing apprehended by the auditory sense organs
      • Nose-consciousness — smelling apprehended through the olfactory organs
      • Tongue-consciousness — tasting perceived through the gustatory organs
      • Ideation-consciousness — the aspect of mind known in Sanskrit as the "mind monkey"; the consciousness of ideation
      • Body-consciousness — tactile feeling apprehended through skin contact, touch
      • The manas consciousness — obscuration-consciousness — a consciousness which through apprehension, gathers the hindrances, the poisons, the karmic formations
      • Store-house consciousness (ālāyavijñāna) — the seed consciousness, the consciousness which is the basis of the other seven
  • Conceptual Proliferation (papañca • prapañca) — the deluded conceptualization of the world through the use of ever-expanding language and concepts
  • Monkey mind — unsettled, restless mind
  • Obstacles to Enlightenment
    • Taints (āsava)
    • Sensual desire (kāma)
    • Existence (bhava)
    • Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)
    • Defilements (kilesa • kleśā)
  • Three poisons
    • Greed (lobha)
    • Hatred (dosa)
    • Delusion (moha)
  • Round of defilements (kilesa-vaṭṭa)
    • Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)
    • Craving (taṇhā • tṛṣṇā)
    • Clinging (upādāna)
  • Four perversions of view, thought and perception (vipallasa)
    • Taking what is impermanent (anicca • anitya) to be permanent (nicca • nitya)
    • Taking what is suffering (dukkha • duḥkha) to be happiness (sukha)
    • Taking what is nonself (anattā • anātman) to be self (attā • ātman)
    • Taking what is not beautiful (asubha) to be beautiful (subha)
  • Five hindrances (pañca nīvaraṇā) — the main inner impediments to the development of concentration and insight
    • Sensual desire (kāmacchanda) — craving for pleasure to the senses
    • Ill-will (vyāpāda) — feelings of malice directed toward others
    • Sloth and torpor (thīna-middha) — half-hearted action with little or no concentration
    • Restlessness and worry (uddhacca-kukkucca) — the inability to calm the mind
    • Doubt (vicikicchā) — lack of conviction or trust
  • Latent tendencies (anusaya)
    • Sensual passion (kāma-rāga)
    • Resistance (patigha)
    • Views (diṭṭhi)
    • Doubt (vicikicchā)
    • Conceit (māna)
    • Craving for continued existence (bhavarāga)
    • Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)
  • Ten Fetters (saṃyojana)
    • Identity view (sakkāyadiṭṭhi) — the view of a truly existent self either as identical with the five aggregates, or as existing in some relation to them
    • Doubt (vicikicchā) — doubt about the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Saṅgha, or the training
    • Wrong grasp of rules and observances (sīlabbata-parāmāsa) — the belief that mere external observances, particularly religious rituals and ascetic practices, can lead to liberation
    • Sensual lust (kāmacchando)
    • Ill will (vyāpādo)
    • Desire for existence in the form realm (rūparāgo)
    • Desire for existence in the formless realm (arūparāgo)
    • Conceit (māno)
    • Restlessness (uddhacca)
    • Ignorance (avijjā • avidyā)
  • Two Kinds of Happiness (Sukha)
    • Bodily happiness (kayasukha)
    • Mental happiness (cittasukha)
  • Two Guardians of the World (Sukka lokapala)
    • Shame at doing evil (hiri)
    • Fear of the results of wrongdoing (ottappa)
  • Threefold Discrimination
    • "I am better"
    • "I am equal"
    • "I am worse"
  • Three Standpoints
    • Gratification (assāda)
    • Danger (ādinava)
    • Escape (nissaraṇa)
  • Three Primary Aims
    • Welfare and happiness directly visible in this present life, attained by fulfilling one's moral commitments and social responsibilities (diṭṭha-dhamma-hitasukha)
    • Welfare and happiness pertaining to the next life, attained by engaging in meritorious deeds (samparāyika-hitasukha)
    • The ultimate good or supreme goal, Nibbāna, final release from the cycle of rebirths, attained by developing the Noble Eightfold Path (paramattha)
  • Three Divisions of the Dhamma
    • Study (pariyatti)
    • Practice (paṭipatti)
    • Realization (pativedha)
  • Four Kinds of Nutriment
    • Physical food [either gross or subtle] (kabalinkaro)
    • Contact (phasso dutiyo)
    • Mental volition (manosancetana)
    • Consciousness (viññāṇa • vijñāna)
  • Four Kinds of Acquisitions (Upadhi)
    • The Five Aggregates (khandha • skandha)
    • Defilements (kilesa • kleśā)
    • Volitional formations (saṅkhāra • saṃskāra)
    • Sensual pleasures (kāmacchanda)
  • Eight Worldly Winds
    • Gain and loss
    • Honour and dishonour
    • Praise and blame
    • Pleasure and pain
  • Truth (Sacca • Satya)
    • Four Noble Truths (cattāri ariyasaccāni • catvāri āryasatyāni)
      • Suffering (dukkha • duḥkha)
      • Cause of suffering (samudaya)
      • Cessation of suffering (nirodha)
      • Path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga • marga)
  • Two truths doctrine
    • Conventional truth (sammutisacca • saṃvṛtisatya)
    • Ultimate truth (paramatthasacca • paramārthasatya)
  • Higher Knowledge (Abhiñña • Abhijña)
    • Six types of higher knowledges (chalabhiñña)
      • Supernormal powers (iddhi)
        • Multiplying the body into many and into one again
        • Appearing and vanishing at will
        • Passing through solid objects as if space
        • Ability to rise and sink in the ground as if in water
        • Walking on water as if land
        • Flying through the skies
      • Touching anything at any distance (even the moon or sun)
      • Traveling to other worlds (like the world of Brahma) with or without the body
      • Divine ear (dibba-sota), that is, clairaudience
      • Mind-penetrating knowledge (ceto-pariya-ñāṇa), that is, telepathy
      • Remembering one's former abodes (pubbe-nivāsanussati), that is, recalling one's own past lives
      • Divine eye (dibba-cakkhu), that is, knowing others' karmic destinations
    • Extinction of mental intoxicants (āsavakkhaya), upon which arahantship follows
  • Three knowledges (tevijja)
    • Remembering one's former abodes (pubbe-nivāsanussati)
    • Divine eye (dibba-cakkhu)
    • Extinction of mental intoxicants (āsavakkhaya)
  • Great fruits of the contemplative life (Maha-Phala)
    • Equanimity (upekkha)
    • Fearlessness (nibbhaya)
    • Freedom from unhappiness & suffering (asukhacaadukkha)
    • Meditative Absorption (samādhi)
    • Out-of-body experience (manomaya)
    • Clairaudience (dibba-sota)
    • Intuition and mental telepathy (ceto-pariya-ñána)
    • Recollection of past lives (patisandhi)
    • Clairvoyance (dibba-cakkhu)
    • The Ending of Mental Fermentations (samatha)
Concepts unique to Mahayana and VajrayanaBodhicitta — the wish to attain BuddhahoodBodhisattva — name given to anyone who has generated bodhicittaBuddha-nature — immortal potency or element within the purest depths of the mind, present in all sentient beings, for awakening and becoming a BuddhaEmptiness (suññatā • śūnyatā)Middle way (majjhimā paṭipadā • madhyamā-pratipad) — the Buddhist path of non-extremismAvoiding the extreme of sensual indulgence (kāmesu kāma-sukha-allika)Avoiding the extreme of self-mortification (atta-kilamatha)Ahimsa - non-violentDzogchen — the natural, primordial state or natural condition of every sentient being Moral discipline and precepts (Sīla • Śīla) Five Precepts (pañca-sīlāni • pañca-śīlāni)
  • Abstaining from taking life (pāṇātipātā veramaṇī)
  • Abstaining from taking what is not given (adinnādānā veramaṇī)
  • Abstaining from sexual misconduct (kāmesu micchācāra veramaṇī)
  • Abstaining from false speech (musāvāda veramaṇī)
  • Abstaining from drinks and drugs that cause heedlessness (surā-meraya-majja-pamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇī)
Eight Precepts (aṭṭhasīla)
  • Abstaining from taking life (both human and non-human)
  • Abstaining from taking what is not given (stealing)
  • Abstaining from all sexual activity
  • Abstaining from telling lies
  • Abstaining from using intoxicating drinks and drugs which lead to carelessness
  • Abstaining from eating at the wrong time (the right time is eating once, after sunrise, before noon)
  • Abstaining from singing, dancing, playing music, attending entertainment performances, wearing perfume, and using cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories)
  • Abstaining from luxurious places for sitting or sleeping
Ten Precepts (dasasīla)
  • Abstaining from killing living things
  • Abstaining from stealing
  • Abstaining from un-chastity (sensuality, sexuality, lust)
  • Abstaining from lying
  • Abstaining from taking intoxicants
  • Abstaining from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon)
  • Abstaining from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances)
  • Abstaining from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garland (decorative accessories)
  • Abstaining from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds
  • Abstaining from accepting money
Sixteen Precepts
  • Three Treasures
    • Taking refuge in the Buddha
    • Taking refuge in the Dharma
    • Taking refuge in the Sangha
  • Three Pure Precepts
    • Not Creating Evil
    • Practicing Good
    • Actualizing Good For Others
  • Ten Grave Precepts
    • Affirm life; Do not kill
    • Be giving; Do not steal
    • Honor the body; Do not misuse sexuality
    • Manifest truth; Do not lie
    • Proceed clearly; Do not cloud the mind
    • See the perfection; Do not speak of others errors and faults
    • Realize self and other as one; Do not elevate the self and blame others
    • Give generously; Do not be withholding
    • Actualize harmony; Do not be angry
    • Experience the intimacy of things; Do not defile the Three Treasures
  • Pātimokkha (Pratimoksha) — the code of monastic rules binding on members of the Buddhist monastic order
  • Parajika (defeats) — four rules entailing expulsion from the sangha for life
    • Sexual intercourse, that is, any voluntary sexual interaction between a bhikkhu and a living being, except for mouth-to-mouth intercourse which falls under the sanghadisesa
    • Stealing, that is, the robbery of anything worth more than 1/24 troy ounce of gold (as determined by local law.)
    • Intentionally bringing about the death of a human being, even if it is still an embryo — whether by killing the person, arranging for an assassin to kill the person, inciting the person to die, or describing the advantages of death
    • Deliberately lying to another person that one has attained a superior human state, such as claiming to be an arahant when one knows one is not, or claiming to have attained one of the jhanas when one knows one hasn't
  • Sanghadisesa — thirteen rules requiring an initial and subsequent meeting of the sangha (communal meetings)
  • Aniyata — two indefinite rules where a monk is accused of having committed an offence with a woman in a screened (enclosed) or private place by a lay person
  • Nissaggiya pacittiya — thirty rules entailing "confession with forfeiture"
  • Pacittiya — ninety-two rules entailing confession
  • Patidesaniya — four violations which must be verbally acknowledged
  • Sekhiyavatta — seventy-five rules of training, which are mainly about the deportment of a monk
    • Sāruppa — proper behavior
    • Bhojanapatisamyutta — food
    • Dhammadesanāpatisamyutta — teaching dhamma
    • Pakinnaka — miscellaneous
  • Adhikarana-samatha — seven rules for settlement of legal processes that concern monks only
Bodhisattva vows
  • Samaya — a set of vows or precepts given to initiates of an esoteric Vajrayana Buddhist order
  • Ascetic practices (dhutanga) — a group of thirteen austerities, or ascetic practices, most commonly observed by Forest Monastics of the Theravada Tradition of Buddhism
Three Resolutions
  • To do no evil (sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ)
  • To do good (kusalassa upasampadā)
  • To purify the mind (sacittapariyodapanaṃ)
Three Pillars of Dhamma
  • Generosity (dāna)
  • Morality (sīla • śīla)
  • Meditation (bhāvanā)
Threefold Training (Sikkhā)
  • The training in the higher moral discipline (adhisīla-sikkhā)
  • The training in the higher mind (adhicitta-sikkhā)
  • The training in the higher wisdom (adhipaññā-sikkhā)
Five Qualities
  • Faith (saddhā • śraddhā)
  • Morality (sīla • śīla)
  • Learning (suta)
  • Generosity (cāga)
  • Wisdom (paññā • prajñā)
Five Powers of a Trainee
  • Faith (saddhā • śraddhā)
  • Conscience (hiri) — an innate sense of shame over moral transgression
  • Concern (ottappa) — moral dread, fear of the results of wrongdoing
  • Energy (viriya • vīrya)
  • Wisdom (paññā • prajñā)
Five Things that lead to Awakening
  • Admirable friendship (kalyāṇa-mittatā • kalyāṇa-mitratā)
  • Morality (sīla • śīla)
  • Hearing the Dhamma
  • Exertion (viriya • vīrya)
  • Awareness of impermanence (anicca-ñāṇa)
Five Subjects for Contemplation (Upajjhatthana Sutta)
  • I am subject to ageing, I am not exempt from ageing
  • I am subject to illness, I am not exempt from illness
  • I am subject to death, I am not exempt from death
  • There will be change and separation from all that I hold dear and near to me
  • I am the owner of my actions, heir to my actions, I am born of my actions, I am related to my actions and I have my actions as refuge; whatever I do, good or evil, of that I will be the heir
Main articles: Gradual training and Anupubbikathā
  • Generosity (dāna)
  • Virtue (sīla • śīla)
  • Heaven (sagga)
  • Danger of sensual pleasure (kāmānaṃ ādīnava)
  • Renunciation (nekkhamma)
The Four Noble Truths (cattāri ariyasaccāni • catvāri āryasatyāni)
  • Seven Good Qualities (Satta saddhammā)
    • Faith (saddhā • śraddhā)
    • Conscience (hiri)
    • Moral dread (ottappa)
    • Learning (suta)
    • Energy (viriya • vīrya)
    • Mindfulness (sati • smṛti)
    • Wisdom (paññā • prajñā)
Ten Meritorious Deeds (Punnakiriya vatthu)
  • Generosity (dāna)
  • Morality (sīla • śīla)
  • Meditation (bhāvanā)
  • Paying due respect to those who are worthy of it (apacayana)
  • Helping others perform good deeds (veyyavacca)
  • Sharing of merit after doing some good deed (anumodana)
  • Rejoicing in the merits of others (pattanumodana)
  • Teaching the Dhamma (dhammadesana)
  • Listening to the Dhamma (dhammassavana)
  • Straightening one's own views
Perfections (Pāramī • Pāramitā)
  • Ten Theravada Pāramīs (Dasa pāramiyo)
    • Generosity (dāna)
    • Morality (sīla)
    • Renunciation (nekkhamma)
    • Wisdom (paññā)
    • Energy (viriya)
    • Patience (khanti)
    • Truthfulness (sacca)
    • Determination (adhiṭṭhāna)
    • Loving-kindness (mettā)
    • Equanimity (upekkhā)
Six Mahayana Pāramitās
  • Generosity (dāna)
  • Morality (śīla)
  • Patience (kṣanti)
  • Energy (vīrya)
  • Concentration (dhyāna)
  • Wisdom (prajñā)
States Pertaining to Enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiyādhammā • Bodhipakṣa dharma)
  • Four Foundations of Mindfulness (Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā • Smṛtyupasthāna)
    • Contemplation of the body (kāyagatāsati • kāyasmṛti)
      • Mindfulness of breathing (ānāpānasati • ānāpānasmṛti)
        • Contemplation of the body (kāyanupassana) — first tetrad
          • Breathing a long breath
          • Breathing a short breath
          • Experiencing the whole (breath-) body (awareness of the beginning, middle, and end of the breath)
          • Tranquilizing the bodily formation
        • Contemplation of feelings (vedanānupassana) — second tetrad
          • Experiencing rapture
          • Experiencing bliss
          • Experiencing the mental formation
          • Tranquilizing the mental formation
        • Contemplation of the mind (cittanupassana) — third tetrad
          • Experiencing the mind
          • Gladdening the mind
          • Concentrating the mind
          • Liberating the mind
        • Contemplation of Dhammas (dhammānupassana) — fourth tetrad
          • Contemplating impermanence
          • Contemplating fading away
          • Contemplating cessation
          • Contemplating relinquishment
    • Postures
      • Walking
      • Standing
      • Sitting
      • Lying down
    • Clear comprehension (sampajañña • samprajaña)
      • Clear comprehension of the purpose of one's action (sātthaka)
      • Clear comprehension of the suitability of one's means to the achievement of one's purpose (sappāya)
      • Clear comprehension of the domain, that is, not abandoning the subject of meditation during one's daily routine (gocara)
      • Clear comprehension of reality, the awareness that behind one's activities there is no abiding self (asammoha)
    • Reflections on repulsiveness of the body, meditation on the thirty-two body parts (patikulamanasikara)
      • head hairs
      • body hairs
      • nails
      • teeth
      • skin
      • flesh
      • tendons
      • bones
      • bone marrow
      • kidneys
      • heart
      • liver
      • pleura (or diaphragm)
      • spleen
      • lungs
      • intestines
      • mesentery
      • stomach
      • feces
      • bile
      • phlegm
      • pus
      • blood
      • sweat
      • fat
      • tears
      • skin-oil
      • saliva
      • mucus
      • synovial fluid
      • urine
      • brain
    • Reflections on the material elements (mahābhūta)
      • Earth
      • Water
      • Fire
      • Wind
    • Cemetery contemplations (asubha)
      • Swollen or bloated corpse
      • Corpse brownish black or purplish blue with decay
      • Festering or suppurated corpse
      • Corpse splattered half or fissured from decay
      • Corpse gnawed by animals such as wild dogs and foxes
      • Corpse scattered in parts, hands, legs, head and body being dispersed
      • Corpse cut and thrown away in parts after killing
      • Bleeding corpse, i.e. with red blood oozing out
      • Corpse infested with and eaten by worms
      • Remains of a corpse in a heap of bones, i.e. skeleton
    • Contemplation of feelings (vedanāsati • vedanāsmṛti)
      • Pleasant feeling
        • Worldly pleasant feeling
        • Spiritual pleasant feeling
      • Painful feeling
        • Worldly painful feeling
        • Spiritual painful feeling
      • Neither-pleasant-nor-painful (neutral) feeling
        • Worldly neutral feeling
        • Spiritual neutral feeling
    • Contemplation of consciousness (cittasati • cittasmṛti)
      • With lust (sarāgaṃ) or without lust (vītarāgaṃ)
      • With hate (sadosaṃ) or without hate (vītadosaṃ)
      • With delusion (samohaṃ) or without delusion (vītamohaṃ)
      • Contracted (saṅkhittaṃ) or scattered (vikkhittaṃ)
      • Lofty (mahaggataṃ) or not lofty (amahaggataṃ)
      • Surpassable (sa-uttaraṃ) or unsurpassed (anuttaraṃ)
      • Quieted (samāhitaṃ) or not quieted (asamāhitaṃ)
      • Released (vimuttaṃ) or not released (avimuttaṃ)
  • Contemplation of mental objects (dhammāsati • dharmasmṛti)
    • Hindrances
    • Aggregates of clinging
    • Sense bases and their fetters
    • Seven factors of enlightenment
    • Four Noble Truths
  • Four Right Exertions (Cattārimāni sammappadhānāni • Samyak-pradhāna)
    • Exertion for the non-arising (anuppādāya) of unskillful states
    • Exertion for the abandoning (pahānāya) of unskillful states
    • Exertion for the arising (uppādāya) of skillful states
    • Exertion for the sustaining (ṭhitiyā) of skillful states
Four Bases for Spiritual Power (Iddhipāda • Ṛddhipāda)
  • Concentration due to desire (chanda)
  • Concentration due to energy (viriya • vīrya)
  • Concentration due to mind (citta)
  • Concentration due to investigation (vīmaṃsā)
Five Spiritual Faculties (Pañca indriya)
  • Faith (saddhā • śraddhā) — faith in the Buddha's awakening
  • Energy (viriya • vīrya) — exertion towards the Four Right Efforts
  • Mindfulness (sati • smṛti) — focusing on the four satipatthana
  • Concentration (samādhi) — achieving the four jhānas
  • Wisdom (paññā • prajñā) — discerning the Four Noble Truths
Five Powers (Pañca bala)
  • Faith (saddhā • śraddhā) — controls doubt
  • Energy (viriya • vīrya) — controls laziness
  • Mindfulness (sati • smṛti) — controls heedlessness
  • Concentration (samādhi) — controls distraction
  • Wisdom (paññā • prajñā) — controls ignorance
Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta sambojjhaṅgā • Sapta bodhyanga)
  • Neutral
    • Mindfulness (sati • smṛti)
  • Arousing
    • Investigation of doctrine (dhamma vicaya • dharma-vicaya)
    • Energy (viriya • vīrya)
    • Rapture (pīti • prīti)
  • Calming
    • Tranquillity (passaddhi)
    • Concentration (samādhi)
    • Equanimity (upekkhā • upekṣā)
  • Right view (sammā-diṭṭhi • samyag-dṛṣṭi)
    • Mundane right view
      • Karma
    • Supramundane right view
      • Right view that accords with the Four Noble Truths (saccanulomika sammā-diṭṭhi)
        • Study
        • Reflection
        • Meditation
      • Right view that penetrates the Four Noble Truths (saccapativedha sammā-diṭṭhi)
        • Right intention (sammā-saṅkappa • samyak-saṃkalpa)
          • The intention of renunciation (nekkhamma-sankappa)
          • The intention of good will (abyapada-sankappa)
          • The intention of harmlessness (avihimsa-sankappa)
Moral discipline (Sīlakkhandha)
  • Right speech (sammā-vācā • samyag-vāc)
    • Abstaining from false speech (musāvāda veramaṇī)
    • Abstaining from slanderous speech (pisunaya vacaya veramaṇī)
    • Abstaining from harsh speech (pharusaya vacaya veramaṇī)
    • Abstaining from verbal abuse
    • Abstaining from insults
    • Abstaining from sarcasm
    • Abstaining from idle chatter (samphappalāpa veramaṇī)
  • Right action (sammā-kammanta • samyak-karmānta)
    • Abstaining from the taking of life (pāṇātipātā veramaṇī)
    • Abstaining from homicide
    • Abstaining from animal slaughter
    • Abstaining from hunting
    • Abstaining from fishing
    • Abstaining from killing insects
    • Abstaining from deliberately harming or torturing another being
    • Abstaining from taking what is not given (adinnādānā veramaṇī)
    • Abstaining from stealing
    • Abstaining from robbery
    • Abstaining from snatching
    • Abstaining from fraudulence
    • Abstaining from deceitfulness
    • Abstaining from sexual misconduct (kāmesu micchācāra veramaṇī)
    • Abstaining from adultery
    • Abstaining from sexual harassment
    • Abstaining from rape
  • Right livelihood (sammā-ājīva • samyag-ājīva)
    • Abstaining from dealing in weapons
    • Abstaining from dealing in living beings (including raising animals for slaughter as well as slave trade and prostitution)
    • Abstaining from dealing in meat production and butchery
    • Abstaining from dealing in poisons
    • Abstaining from dealing in intoxicants
    • Abstaining from deceit
    • Abstaining from treachery
    • Abstaining from soothsaying
    • Abstaining from trickery
    • Abstaining from usury
Concentration (Samādhikkhandha)
  • Right effort (sammā-vāyāma • samyag-vyāyāma)
    • The effort to prevent the arising of unarisen unwholesome states (samvarappadhana)
      • Wise attention (yoniso manasikara)
      • Restraint of the sense faculties (indriya-samvara)
    • The effort to abandon unwholesome states that have already arisen (pahanappadhana)
      • Overcoming the Five hindrances
    • The effort to arouse wholesome states that have not yet arisen (bhavanappadhana)
      • Seven Factors of Enlightenment (satta sambojjhaṅgā • sapta bodhyanga)
        • Mindfulness (sati)
        • Investigation of doctrine (dhamma vicaya)
        • Energy (viriya • vīrya)
        • Rapture (pīti)
        • Tranquillity (passaddhi)
        • Concentration (samādhi)
        • Equanimity (upekkha)
    • The effort to maintain and perfect wholesome states already arisen (anurakkhanappadhana)
  • Right mindfulness (sammā-sati • samyak-smṛti)
    • Contemplation of the body (kāyanupassana)
    • Contemplation of feeling (vedanānupassana)
    • Contemplation of states of mind (cittanupassana)
    • Contemplation of phenomena (dhammānupassana)
  • Right concentration (sammā-samādhi • samyak-samādhi)
    • Four jhānas
      • First jhāna (pathamajjhana)
      • Second jhāna (dutiyajjhana)
      • Third jhāna (tatiyajjhana)
      • Fourth jhāna (catutthajjhana)
Acquired factors
  • Right knowledge (sammā-ñāṇa)
  • Right liberation (sammā-vimutti)
Insight meditation (Vipassanā • Vipaśyanā)
  • Insight knowledge (vipassanā-ñāṇa)
    • Eighteen kinds of insight
      • Contemplation on impermanence (aniccanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of permanence
      • Contemplation on unsatisfactoriness (dukkhanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of real happiness
      • Contemplation on non-self (anattanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of self
      • Contemplation on turning away (nibbidanupassana) overcomes affection
      • Contemplation on detachment (viraganupassana) overcomes greed
      • Contemplation on cessation (nirodhanupassana) overcomes the arising
      • Contemplation on giving up (patinissagganupassana) overcomes attachment
      • Contemplation on dissolution (khayanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of something compact
      • Contemplation on disappearance (vayanupassana) overcomes kamma-accumulation
      • Contemplation on changeablenes (viparinamanupassana) overcomes the wrong idea of something immutable
      • Contemplation on the signless (animittanupassana) overcomes the conditions of rebirth
      • Contemplation on the desireless (appanihitanupassana) overcomes longing
      • Contemplation on emptiness (suññatanupassana) overcomes clinging
      • Higher wisdom and insight (adhipaññadhamma vipassana) overcomes the wrong idea of something substantial
      • True eye of knowledge (yathabhuta ñanadassana) overcomes clinging to delusion
      • Contemplation on misery (adinavanupassana) overcomes clinging to desire
      • Reflecting contemplation (patisankhanupassana) overcomes thoughtlessness
      • Contemplation on the standstill of existence (vivattanupassana) overcomes being entangled in fetters
    • Sixteen Stages of Vipassanā Knowledge
      • Knowledge to distinguish mental and physical states (namarupa pariccheda ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of the cause-and-effect relationship between mental and physical states (paccaya pariggaha ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of mental and physical processes as impermanent, unsatisfactory and nonself (sammasana ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of arising and passing away (udayabbaya ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of the dissolution of formations (bhanga ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of the fearful nature of mental and physical states (bhaya ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of mental and physical states as unsatisfactory (adinava ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of disenchantment (nibbida ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of the desire to abandon the worldly state (muncitukamayata ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge which investigates the path to deliverance and instills a decision to practice further (patisankha ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge which regards mental and physical states with equanimity (sankharupekha ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge which conforms to the Four Noble Truths (anuloma ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge of deliverance from the worldly condition (gotrabhu ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge by which defilements are abandoned and are overcome by destruction (magga ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge which realizes the fruit of the path and has nibbana as object (phala ñāṇa)
      • Knowledge which reviews the defilements still remaining (paccavekkhana ñāṇa)